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TGI Open Access Books Series

Ecosystems and
Resources Management

Volume 1

Edited by: Hasrat Arjjumend

ISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6


Copyright © Contributors & Hasrat Arjjumend, 2023

Open Access
Chapter 9 Overview Contents

Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya

Prakash Singh Thapa*1, Sunita Ranabhat2, Kishor Aryal3, Bindu Ghimire4, Kabi Raj Khatiwada5

1Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, 44600, Nepal, & Ishikawa Prefectural University, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.

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2Climate Change Adaptation through Sustainable Forest Management, JICA Project, Kathmandu, Nepal. Email: | ORCID:

3University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia.

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4Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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5International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Post Box #3226, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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*Corresponding author


Water and watershed resources have been degraded due to population growth combined with unplanned urbanization, industrial growth, and inappropriate farming systems worldwide. An effective, efficient, and holistic management system is crucial for reversing the degradation. In the Himalayan landscape, integrated river basin management (IRBM) could play an important role, especially due to the topographical challenges and governmental structures, and inconsistencies between hydro-physical boundaries and administrative boundaries. In Nepal, since early 2005 several studies have been carried out on basin-level management. However, the Government of Nepal adopted a basin-level management approach for implementing IRBM only after 2017, a few years after federal restructuring. This paper aims to review the progress made in the political, legislative, and institutional arenas for the implementation of IRBM in Nepal. The study is based on policy analysis and a literature review. It highlights that Nepal is in the preparatory phase of establishing a legal-institutional framework for IRBM and lacks proper institutional mechanisms for translating the principles of IRBM to actions on the ground. The chapter identifies the strengths and gaps in existing institutional arrangements and sheds light on the practical aspects of IRBM implementation, which would be useful learning for the countries aiming to implement IRBM in similar landscapes globally. Based on the study, it is concluded that an integrated approach based on collaboration among the different tiers and sectors of government is essential for implementing IRBM and ensuring the sustainability of water resources.


Institutions; IRBM; Policy; Resources; Watershed Management


Thapa, P.S., Ranabhat, S., Aryal, K., Ghimire, B. and Khatiwada, K.R. (2023). Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya (Chapter.9). In Hasrat Arjjumend (ed.), Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, pp.149-178. Montreal/Vancouver, Canada: The Grassroots Institute. eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6. Doi:

Open Access. Copyright © 2023 the author(s), published by The Grassroots Institute. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial - No Derivatives 4.0 International License.

Edited by Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

About the Author(s)

Prakash Singh Thapa is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Ecosystem-based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR) at Ishikawa Prefectural University, Japan. He holds a master's degree in forestry from Tribhuvan University, Nepal and was honored with a Gold Medal from the Rt. Honorable President of Nepal for his outstanding academic performance. Concurrently, he serves as an Under-secretary in the Department of Forests and Soil Conservation under the Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal. He has earned nearly 15 years of experience as a Government Officer in various facets of expertise, including Forest Management, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), Soil Conservation & Watershed Management, and Springshed Management. He recently achieved noteworthy milestones as a project coordinator for two watershed initiatives: "Landslide Prevention and Stabilization of Slopes in the Most Earthquake Affected District of Nepal," carried out in collaboration with the Government of Nepal and FAO TCP/NEP/3601; and "Building Resilience to Landslides through Support for Community-Based Rehabilitation and Mitigation Actions and the Establishment of Early Warning Systems in Nepal," executed in partnership with the Government of Nepal, FAO, and USAID OSRO/NEP/602. These endeavors were undertaken in response to a significant earthquake in Nepal. Mr. Thapa’s contributions extend to scholarly pursuits, reflected in his publication record encompassing articles in national and international journals concerning forestry and watershed management.

Sunita Ranabhat, from Nepal is working as Provincial Coordinator at the JICA funded Project for Climate Change Adaptation through Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal. She brings more than 10 years’ experience in the sector of forest and ecosystem services, climate change adaptation and policy analysis. She has published articles on national and international journals. Ms. Ranabhat holds B.Sc in Forestry from Institute of Forestry, Tribhuwan University Nepal and M.Sc. in Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology from University of Göttingen, Germany.

Kishor Aryal is a PhD researcher in ecosystem services from the University of Southern Queensland (UniSQ), Australia. He has done two master’s degrees, one from Wageningen University of The Netherlands and another from Tribhuvan University of Nepal. Throughout his career, he has received various fellowships for research and training (i.e., NUFFIC Scholarship, UNEP fellowship, Australian Government RTP scholarship). He has co-produced 26 peer-reviewed articles in international refereed journals (21 of them in Q1 journals & 17 of them as the lead author), and few more articles are under review. He won the Student Publication Excellence Award in 2023 and was awarded as the ‘Featured Student’ in 2021 at UniSQ. He has been involved in research and teaching programs in various subjects at UniSQ. He taught into B.Sc. Forestry courses for 3 years at the Kathmandu Forestry College and served the roles of training officer and technology extension officer for the government of Nepal. Further, he has worked for ICIMOD (an inter-governmental research organization of 8 Hindu-Kush Himalayan Countries) as a researcher. For the last 15 years, he has been working with the Government of Nepal, and is equipped with policy and practical knowledge and experience in environmental science and ecosystem management. He has a unique capacity to operationalize the science-policy interface through his long-served role as an officer under the Government of Nepal and a researcher in ecosystem services and natural resource management.

Bindu Ghimire is pursuing her Ph.D. specializing in investigating the cause and effect of the Bagmati River's (independent sub-basin) as well as its tributaries' slumping condition in central Nepal. Her research addresses the impacts of the deterioration in water quality of Bagmati river on both livestock and human populations. Her academic pursuits are based at Nepal's Tribhuvan University where she is serving as associate professor since 2017. She has dedicated herself to imparting knowledge to and guiding graduate students through this capacity. She is conversant on wide range of topics, including climate change, livelihood and health. A solid grounding in environmental microbiology combines alongside with this wide-ranging expertise. She has played a significant part in contributing to numerous published articles and book chapters.

Kabi Raj Khatiwada is an environmental graduate, specializing in climate change, water resources, and greenhouse gas assessment. He employs modeling tools and climate data products for the analysis, interpretation, and visualization of climatic and biogeological information at various scales. He is passionate about understanding the changing climate and the different components of the water cycle, watershed management, future scenarios, and climate induced disasters. His experience includes working as a water resource analyst at the esteemed ICIMOD, where he was extensively engaged in responsibilities encompassing promotion of sustainable watershed management, the analysis of hydrometeorological data, and assessments of water balance dynamics. Additionally, he has conducted training sessions for professionals from both governmental and private sectors, educating them on the effective utilization of data for policy formulation and decision-making. Through these engagements, he has fostered comprehensive information on the intricate interplay between water systems and the surrounding environment.

About this book

Open Access

In the captivating pages of "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management", readers embark on an insightful journey through the intricate world of mountain ecosystems and the essential strategies for responsible resource management. This book serves as an enlightening guide for understanding the unique dynamics of these awe-inspiring landscapes and the challenges they face in an ever-changing world. Through a harmonious blend of scientific exploration and practical approaches, this research-based literary expedition unveils the delicate balance between human development and the preservation of these remarkable ecosystems.

Spanning 24 chapters, the book first delves into the enchanting beauty and biodiversity of mountain ecosystems. This section not only highlights the intrinsic value of these ecosystems but also sheds light on their vulnerability to climate change and human activities. Moving forward, the book meticulously dissects resource management strategies that hold the key to sustaining the delicate equilibrium of mountain environments, through capturing the topics of Mountain Agrobiodiversity, Mountain Forests, Mountain Watersheds, River Basin Management, Ecotourism, Animal Genetic Diversity, Mountain Identity, Environmental Psychology and Mountain Policies. Thus, whether it is water resources crucial for downstream communities, sustainable tourism that respects local cultures, or responsible land use planning, the book offers a wealth of insights to empower policymakers, environmentalists, and local communities alike.

Overall, the narrative transcends from theory to action as the book presents inspiring case studies of successful resource management initiatives from around the globe. These stories of collaboration, innovation, and resilience demonstrate that a harmonious coexistence between humans and mountain ecosystems is not only attainable but also imperative for a sustainable future. "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management" serves as a beacon of knowledge, guiding readers toward a deeper appreciation of these majestic landscapes and inspiring them to become stewards of their preservation. As we stand at a crossroads of environmental consciousness, this book paves the way for informed decisions that will safeguard these natural treasures for generations to come.

About the Editor

Hasrat Arjjumend


  • Mountains
  • Mountain Ecosystems
  • Natural Resources
  • NRM
  • Mountain Agrobiodiversity
  • Mountain Forests
  • Mountain Watershed
  • River Basin Management
  • Ecotourism
  • Mountain Biodiversity
  • Mountain Landscape
  • Climate Change
  • Animal Genetic Diversity
  • Mountain Identity
  • Environmental Psychology
  • Mountain Policies


Arjjumend, H. (ed.) (2023). Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, Montreal, Canada: The Grassroots Institute, eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6. Doi:

Table of Contents

Preface / Foreword
Chapter 1 Introduction
Hasrat Arjjumend
Chapter 2 Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review
Sining Zhang
Chapter 3 Mountain Biodiversity in Romania
Daniela Antonescu
Chapter 4 Fish Diversity of Hill Streams of South Kamrup, Assam, India
Ellora Choudhury, Saibal Sengupta
Chapter 5 Mountain Forests: Challenges and Management
Hyunshik Moon, Tamirat Solomon
Chapter 6 Dynamics of Grassland Vegetation Composition across different Land-use Types on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau: Implications to Combat Grassland Degradation
Moses Fayiah, ShiKui Dong, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Sanjay Singh, Muthu Rajkumar, Sallay Saccoh, Rebecca Bockarie
Chapter 7 Understanding the Nexus of Climate Change and Migration: A Case of Dhye Peoples from Upper Mustang, Nepal
Pragya Sherchan
Chapter 8 Integrated Management of Land, Water and Bioresources for Sustainable Agriculture in North Eastern Region of India
Chapter 9 Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya
Prakash Singh Thapa, Sunita Ranabhat, Kishor Aryal, Bindu Ghimire, Kabi Raj Khatiwada
Chapter 10 Agrobiodiversity Indicators and Measurement using R
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 11 Agrobiodiversity and Natural Resource Management in Traditional Agricultural Systems of Northeast India
Wishfully Mylliemngap
Chapter 12 Ecosystem Services to Support the Diversification of Agricultural Production
Alla Pecheniuk, Valentyna Borkovska, Andrii Pecheniuk, Iryna Mushenyk
Chapter 13 Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and Seed Bank for Sustainable Agriculture
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 14 Enhancing Farmers’ Seed Systems through Empowerment of Women: A Case Study from mountain areas of SW China
Yanyan Zhang, Xin Song, Yiching Song, Milin Tian
Chapter 15 Issues of Declining Livestock Breeds: Revisiting Domestic Animal Diversity in Pastoral Systems
Saverio Krätli
Chapter 16 Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context
Lavinia Udrea, Gabriela Teodorescu, Sînziana Venera Morărita, Ivona David
Chapter 17 Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges
Ayman Balla Mustafa, Asim Faraz
Chapter 18 Trends and Patterns of Scientific Publishing during 1990-2020 on Conservation Genetics in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Marcos Vinicius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Gustavo Reis de Brito, Marcela Aparecida de Moraes Silvestre
Chapter 19 Mountain Identity and Development Aspirations
Elena Konstantinidou, Konstantinos Moraitis
Chapter 20 Psychological Discourse in Building the Environmental Consciousness in Special Context of Carpathian Mountains
Olena Khrushch, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 21 Collective Ecological Consciousness from the Prism of Psychological Indicators
Olena Khrushch, Oksana Fedyk, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 22 United Nations Mountain Agenda, the Mountain Partnership and Related Regional Mechanisms
Rosalaura Romeo
Chapter 23 Postmodern Transformations of Tourism Development in Mountains
Alla Pecheniuk, Alla Kiziun
Annexure List of Reviewers
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: The Grassroots Institute
  • Copyright Year: 2023
  • Audience: Natural Resources Scientists, Social Scientists, Policy Analysts, etc.
  • Keywords: Mountains; Mountain Ecosystems; Natural Resources; NRM; Mountain Agrobiodiversity; Mountain Forests; Mountain Watershed; River Basin Management; Ecotourism; Mountain Biodiversity; Mountain Landscape; Climate Change; Animal Genetic Diversity; Mountain Identity; Environmental Psychology; Mountain Policies
  • eBook: