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TGI Open Access Books Series

Ecosystems and
Resources Management

Volume 1

Edited by: Hasrat Arjjumend

ISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6


Copyright © Contributors & Hasrat Arjjumend, 2023

Open Access
Chapter 2 Overview Contents

Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review

Sining Zhang

Department of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 611756, Xipu Campus, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China.

E-mail: | ORCID:


Considerable attention has been given to the concept of landscape services since the development of research on ecosystem services. However, from the landscape perspective, there are numerous challenges and unanswered issues regarding landscape services. The objective of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review about the state-of-the-art concept of landscape services and its corresponding approaches while trying to set up a foundation for further discussions. First, the definitions and classifications of ecosystem services and landscape services are presented. Second, the relationship between ecosystem services and landscape services, and the studies that integrate ecosystem services into landscape research, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided concerning research conducted at multiple scales, and the various assessment and quantification methods used for mapping and studying landscape services, even though there are many challenges in establishing a comprehensive approach for such quantification and mapping.


Landscape services; Ecosystem services; Classification; Quantifying and mapping


Zhang, S. (2023). Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review (Chapter.2). In Hasrat Arjjumend (ed.), Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, pp.17-36.  Montreal/Vancouver, Canada: The Grassroots Institute. eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6

Open Access. Copyright © 2023 the author(s), published by The Grassroots Institute. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial - No Derivatives 4.0 International License. This work was first published as an article in the GJNR journal of the same publisher with Doi:

Edited by Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

About the Author(s)

Dr. Sining Zhang graduated from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain. Now she is an Assistant Professor at the School of Architecture, Southwest Jiaotong University, China. Her research focuses on landscape planning and design, ecosystem services, urban blue-green infrastructure, climate adaptation and mitigation. She is hosting four research projects, such as the national natural science foundation of China, and has participated in four global or national research projects. She published 13 papers, including 8 SCI/SSCI journals; and presented 7 times of her research in international conferences.

About this book

Open Access

In the captivating pages of "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management", readers embark on an insightful journey through the intricate world of mountain ecosystems and the essential strategies for responsible resource management. This book serves as an enlightening guide for understanding the unique dynamics of these awe-inspiring landscapes and the challenges they face in an ever-changing world. Through a harmonious blend of scientific exploration and practical approaches, this research-based literary expedition unveils the delicate balance between human development and the preservation of these remarkable ecosystems.

Spanning 24 chapters, the book first delves into the enchanting beauty and biodiversity of mountain ecosystems. This section not only highlights the intrinsic value of these ecosystems but also sheds light on their vulnerability to climate change and human activities. Moving forward, the book meticulously dissects resource management strategies that hold the key to sustaining the delicate equilibrium of mountain environments, through capturing the topics of Mountain Agrobiodiversity, Mountain Forests, Mountain Watersheds, River Basin Management, Ecotourism, Animal Genetic Diversity, Mountain Identity, Environmental Psychology and Mountain Policies. Thus, whether it is water resources crucial for downstream communities, sustainable tourism that respects local cultures, or responsible land use planning, the book offers a wealth of insights to empower policymakers, environmentalists, and local communities alike.

Overall, the narrative transcends from theory to action as the book presents inspiring case studies of successful resource management initiatives from around the globe. These stories of collaboration, innovation, and resilience demonstrate that a harmonious coexistence between humans and mountain ecosystems is not only attainable but also imperative for a sustainable future. "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management" serves as a beacon of knowledge, guiding readers toward a deeper appreciation of these majestic landscapes and inspiring them to become stewards of their preservation. As we stand at a crossroads of environmental consciousness, this book paves the way for informed decisions that will safeguard these natural treasures for generations to come.

About the Editor

Hasrat Arjjumend


  • Mountains
  • Mountain Ecosystems
  • Natural Resources
  • NRM
  • Mountain Agrobiodiversity
  • Mountain Forests
  • Mountain Watershed
  • River Basin Management
  • Ecotourism
  • Mountain Biodiversity
  • Mountain Landscape
  • Climate Change
  • Animal Genetic Diversity
  • Mountain Identity
  • Environmental Psychology
  • Mountain Policies


Arjjumend, H. (ed.) (2023). Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, Montreal, Canada: The Grassroots Institute, eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6. Doi:

Table of Contents

Preface / Foreword
Chapter 1 Introduction
Hasrat Arjjumend
Chapter 2 Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review
Sining Zhang
Chapter 3 Mountain Biodiversity in Romania
Daniela Antonescu
Chapter 4 Fish Diversity of Hill Streams of South Kamrup, Assam, India
Ellora Choudhury, Saibal Sengupta
Chapter 5 Mountain Forests: Challenges and Management
Hyunshik Moon, Tamirat Solomon
Chapter 6 Dynamics of Grassland Vegetation Composition across different Land-use Types on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau: Implications to Combat Grassland Degradation
Moses Fayiah, ShiKui Dong, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Sanjay Singh, Muthu Rajkumar, Sallay Saccoh, Rebecca Bockarie
Chapter 7 Understanding the Nexus of Climate Change and Migration: A Case of Dhye Peoples from Upper Mustang, Nepal
Pragya Sherchan
Chapter 8 Integrated Management of Land, Water and Bioresources for Sustainable Agriculture in North Eastern Region of India
Chapter 9 Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya
Prakash Singh Thapa, Sunita Ranabhat, Kishor Aryal, Bindu Ghimire, Kabi Raj Khatiwada
Chapter 10 Agrobiodiversity Indicators and Measurement using R
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 11 Agrobiodiversity and Natural Resource Management in Traditional Agricultural Systems of Northeast India
Wishfully Mylliemngap
Chapter 12 Ecosystem Services to Support the Diversification of Agricultural Production
Alla Pecheniuk, Valentyna Borkovska, Andrii Pecheniuk, Iryna Mushenyk
Chapter 13 Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and Seed Bank for Sustainable Agriculture
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 14 Enhancing Farmers’ Seed Systems through Empowerment of Women: A Case Study from mountain areas of SW China
Yanyan Zhang, Xin Song, Yiching Song, Milin Tian
Chapter 15 Issues of Declining Livestock Breeds: Revisiting Domestic Animal Diversity in Pastoral Systems
Saverio Krätli
Chapter 16 Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context
Lavinia Udrea, Gabriela Teodorescu, Sînziana Venera Morărita, Ivona David
Chapter 17 Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges
Ayman Balla Mustafa, Asim Faraz
Chapter 18 Trends and Patterns of Scientific Publishing during 1990-2020 on Conservation Genetics in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Marcos Vinicius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Gustavo Reis de Brito, Marcela Aparecida de Moraes Silvestre
Chapter 19 Mountain Identity and Development Aspirations
Elena Konstantinidou, Konstantinos Moraitis
Chapter 20 Psychological Discourse in Building the Environmental Consciousness in Special Context of Carpathian Mountains
Olena Khrushch, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 21 Collective Ecological Consciousness from the Prism of Psychological Indicators
Olena Khrushch, Oksana Fedyk, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 22 United Nations Mountain Agenda, the Mountain Partnership and Related Regional Mechanisms
Rosalaura Romeo
Chapter 23 Postmodern Transformations of Tourism Development in Mountains
Alla Pecheniuk, Alla Kiziun
Annexure List of Reviewers
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: The Grassroots Institute
  • Copyright Year: 2023
  • Audience: Natural Resources Scientists, Social Scientists, Policy Analysts, etc.
  • Keywords: Mountains; Mountain Ecosystems; Natural Resources; NRM; Mountain Agrobiodiversity; Mountain Forests; Mountain Watershed; River Basin Management; Ecotourism; Mountain Biodiversity; Mountain Landscape; Climate Change; Animal Genetic Diversity; Mountain Identity; Environmental Psychology; Mountain Policies
  • eBook: