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TGI Open Access Books Series

Ecosystems and
Resources Management

Volume 1

Edited by: Hasrat Arjjumend

ISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6


Copyright © Contributors & Hasrat Arjjumend, 2023

Open Access
Chapter 16 Overview Contents

Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context

Lavinia Udrea*1, Gabriela Teodorescu2, Sînziana Venera Morărita3, Ivona David4

1Department of Environmental Engineering, Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania.

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2Department of Environmental Engineering, Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania.

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3Department of Environmental Engineering, Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania.

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4Department of Environmental Engineering, Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania.

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*Corresponding author


A concern for the growth and utilization of sheep is raised since ancient times in Romania. The development of livestock sector is determined by the climate and the geographical configuration with the availability of grasslands maintained by transhumants. The pastoralism founded a domestic processing of milk, wool and leather products with positive socio-economic implications on material and spiritual life of local people. The sheep breeds prevailed until the 20th century were ‘Tucana’ and ‘Stogose’ and, to a lesser extent, ‘Tisigai’. These breeds, generally unimproved, have a profound fitness and resistance to harsh weather conditions. These breeds were also fit for traveling long routes in search of food. The utilization of a sheep breed is determined by the national economic demand, productivity potential of the breed, available, technology, improvement and utilization methods of the breed. The said sheep breeds were appreciated because they produce a diversity of products having superior nutritional or economic values. It is known especially for its white wool, which is used in domestic industry for making clothes and other products including artifacts, textiles, Persian carpets, etc. Considering the local natural conditions and the national economic demands, the sheep husbandry was assisted continuously to support intensive and multilateral development producing the necessary raw materials for the textile, fur, leather and food industry. Both research and the technical developments have contributed to the zootechnical field geared to resolve the problems appeared in the development of sheep. The scientific knowledge and expertise need to be combined with application skills leading to the development and modernization of complex technologies helping growth of sheep products.


Sheep; Wool; Milk; Bioeconomy; Meat


Udrea, L., Teodorescu, G., Morărita, S.V. and David, I. (2023). Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context (Chapter.16). In Hasrat Arjjumend (ed.), Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, pp.287-304.  Montreal/Vancouver, Canada: The Grassroots Institute. eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6 Doi:

Open Access. Copyright © 2023 the author(s), published by The Grassroots Institute. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial - No Derivatives 4.0 International License. This work was first published as an article in the A&A journal of the same publisher with Doi:

Edited by Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

About the Author(s)

Dr. Lavinia Udrea is an Associate Professor at "Valahia" University of Târgoviște, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Food Science, Romania (at the Center for Studies and Research for AgroForestry Biodiversity). She is PhD in Animal Husbandry and She was a postdoctoral at the School of Zootechnical Biodiversity and Food Biotechnologies and worked on ‘Reproduction biotechnologies used in sheep to shorten the interval between lambing fertile mating in correlation with the pastoral bio-economy and eco-economy’. Along with teaching Animal husbandry, Conservation of Biodiversity, Fish Farming, Sustainable Development she is Member of the "Research and Expertise Center for Natural and Environmental Resources" at "Valahia" University of Târgoviște. She has been Member of the Association of Goat and Sheep Breeders from Romania (CAPRIROM), Member of the Association "One Health - Academician Nicolae Manolescu Strunga" Romania, a Member of the organizing committee of International Conference on Sensory Education and Food Analysis, and Expert Evaluator for continuous training programs at the Dâmbovița County level.

Prof. Dr. Gabriela Teodorescu is a Vice Rector to “Valahia” University of Targoviste, Romania, Expert EC – DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, Expert Panel ERA Chair - ERA4CS. She coordinates several research programs at national and international level and been involved in EU projects evaluation and specific commissions. Her scientific experience it recognized in Europe, Latin America and Asia as a visiting professor, conferences speakers or research coordinator for international teams. Since 2004 she coordinates the Research Centre for Environment and Natural Resource and is the Editor in Chief for Agriculture - international indexed journal. She is also the Member Technical Advisory Board of the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources. Editor-in-Chief, Agriculture [ISSN 2065-2720], Indexed by DeGruyter International Database.

Dr. Ing. Sînziana Venera Morărița is University Head of Works, Teaching and Research at the Department of Environmental Engineering and Food Science, Valahia University of Târgovişte, Romania. She is PhD in Horticulture and supervised the establishment and maintenance of a fruit nursery in the year 2000, She has served the laboratories of Botany, Vegetable Culture, Biodiversity Conservation, Processing and Capitalization of Plant Products and Horticultural Ecosystems. She is the member of the Center for Research and Expertise of Natural and Environmental Resources, Valahia University of Targoviste, member of the Editorial staff of the Annals of the Valahia University of Targoviste –Agriculture. She has published more than 70 articles.

Dr. Ivona David is a Lecturer at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Food Science, Valahia University of Targoviște, Romania. She did PhD in Agronomy with the specialization in agromontanology. Her academic interests include agronomy, protection of the environment and sustainable development. She has over 40 published works, including chapters in books.

About this book

Open Access

In the captivating pages of "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management", readers embark on an insightful journey through the intricate world of mountain ecosystems and the essential strategies for responsible resource management. This book serves as an enlightening guide for understanding the unique dynamics of these awe-inspiring landscapes and the challenges they face in an ever-changing world. Through a harmonious blend of scientific exploration and practical approaches, this research-based literary expedition unveils the delicate balance between human development and the preservation of these remarkable ecosystems.

Spanning 24 chapters, the book first delves into the enchanting beauty and biodiversity of mountain ecosystems. This section not only highlights the intrinsic value of these ecosystems but also sheds light on their vulnerability to climate change and human activities. Moving forward, the book meticulously dissects resource management strategies that hold the key to sustaining the delicate equilibrium of mountain environments, through capturing the topics of Mountain Agrobiodiversity, Mountain Forests, Mountain Watersheds, River Basin Management, Ecotourism, Animal Genetic Diversity, Mountain Identity, Environmental Psychology and Mountain Policies. Thus, whether it is water resources crucial for downstream communities, sustainable tourism that respects local cultures, or responsible land use planning, the book offers a wealth of insights to empower policymakers, environmentalists, and local communities alike.

Overall, the narrative transcends from theory to action as the book presents inspiring case studies of successful resource management initiatives from around the globe. These stories of collaboration, innovation, and resilience demonstrate that a harmonious coexistence between humans and mountain ecosystems is not only attainable but also imperative for a sustainable future. "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management" serves as a beacon of knowledge, guiding readers toward a deeper appreciation of these majestic landscapes and inspiring them to become stewards of their preservation. As we stand at a crossroads of environmental consciousness, this book paves the way for informed decisions that will safeguard these natural treasures for generations to come.

About the Editor

Hasrat Arjjumend


  • Mountains
  • Mountain Ecosystems
  • Natural Resources
  • NRM
  • Mountain Agrobiodiversity
  • Mountain Forests
  • Mountain Watershed
  • River Basin Management
  • Ecotourism
  • Mountain Biodiversity
  • Mountain Landscape
  • Climate Change
  • Animal Genetic Diversity
  • Mountain Identity
  • Environmental Psychology
  • Mountain Policies


Arjjumend, H. (ed.) (2023). Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, Montreal, Canada: The Grassroots Institute, eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6. Doi:

Table of Contents

Preface / Foreword
Chapter 1 Introduction
Hasrat Arjjumend
Chapter 2 Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review
Sining Zhang
Chapter 3 Mountain Biodiversity in Romania
Daniela Antonescu
Chapter 4 Fish Diversity of Hill Streams of South Kamrup, Assam, India
Ellora Choudhury, Saibal Sengupta
Chapter 5 Mountain Forests: Challenges and Management
Hyunshik Moon, Tamirat Solomon
Chapter 6 Dynamics of Grassland Vegetation Composition across different Land-use Types on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau: Implications to Combat Grassland Degradation
Moses Fayiah, ShiKui Dong, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Sanjay Singh, Muthu Rajkumar, Sallay Saccoh, Rebecca Bockarie
Chapter 7 Understanding the Nexus of Climate Change and Migration: A Case of Dhye Peoples from Upper Mustang, Nepal
Pragya Sherchan
Chapter 8 Integrated Management of Land, Water and Bioresources for Sustainable Agriculture in North Eastern Region of India
Chapter 9 Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya
Prakash Singh Thapa, Sunita Ranabhat, Kishor Aryal, Bindu Ghimire, Kabi Raj Khatiwada
Chapter 10 Agrobiodiversity Indicators and Measurement using R
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 11 Agrobiodiversity and Natural Resource Management in Traditional Agricultural Systems of Northeast India
Wishfully Mylliemngap
Chapter 12 Ecosystem Services to Support the Diversification of Agricultural Production
Alla Pecheniuk, Valentyna Borkovska, Andrii Pecheniuk, Iryna Mushenyk
Chapter 13 Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and Seed Bank for Sustainable Agriculture
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 14 Enhancing Farmers’ Seed Systems through Empowerment of Women: A Case Study from mountain areas of SW China
Yanyan Zhang, Xin Song, Yiching Song, Milin Tian
Chapter 15 Issues of Declining Livestock Breeds: Revisiting Domestic Animal Diversity in Pastoral Systems
Saverio Krätli
Chapter 16 Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context
Lavinia Udrea, Gabriela Teodorescu, Sînziana Venera Morărita, Ivona David
Chapter 17 Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges
Ayman Balla Mustafa, Asim Faraz
Chapter 18 Trends and Patterns of Scientific Publishing during 1990-2020 on Conservation Genetics in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Marcos Vinicius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Gustavo Reis de Brito, Marcela Aparecida de Moraes Silvestre
Chapter 19 Mountain Identity and Development Aspirations
Elena Konstantinidou, Konstantinos Moraitis
Chapter 20 Psychological Discourse in Building the Environmental Consciousness in Special Context of Carpathian Mountains
Olena Khrushch, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 21 Collective Ecological Consciousness from the Prism of Psychological Indicators
Olena Khrushch, Oksana Fedyk, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 22 United Nations Mountain Agenda, the Mountain Partnership and Related Regional Mechanisms
Rosalaura Romeo
Chapter 23 Postmodern Transformations of Tourism Development in Mountains
Alla Pecheniuk, Alla Kiziun
Annexure List of Reviewers
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: The Grassroots Institute
  • Copyright Year: 2023
  • Audience: Natural Resources Scientists, Social Scientists, Policy Analysts, etc.
  • Keywords: Mountains; Mountain Ecosystems; Natural Resources; NRM; Mountain Agrobiodiversity; Mountain Forests; Mountain Watershed; River Basin Management; Ecotourism; Mountain Biodiversity; Mountain Landscape; Climate Change; Animal Genetic Diversity; Mountain Identity; Environmental Psychology; Mountain Policies
  • eBook: