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TGI Open Access Books Series

Ecosystems and
Resources Management

Volume 1

Edited by: Hasrat Arjjumend

ISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6


Copyright © Contributors & Hasrat Arjjumend, 2023

Open Access
Chapter 13 Overview Contents

Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and National Seed Banks for Sustainable Agriculture

Bal Krishna Joshi

National Gene Bank, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Email: | ORCID:


Indigenous seeds are grown by the farmers over the years with a strong influence from local natural factors. Such seeds have a higher level of intra-population variations and the capacity of buffering the adverse factors. Understanding indigenous seeds along with their diversity are useful to diversify their uses, to assess conservation status, to know the factors making farming areas red zone, and to improve their performance. Selection is the simplest and most common method for the improvement of crop varieties. The variation must be created and maintained to impose selection. Different types of selection can be considered depending on the mode of reproduction of crops. Response to selection and correlated response are estimated to make the selection process more effective. Many different selection approaches can target either developing monomorphic or polymorphic varieties. There are five selection units and can be applied in five crop stages. Farmers’ criteria need to be considered during selection process. Based on the genotypic classes, there are three types of selection namely stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection. The most simple and common selection methods are pure lines, mass selection, and class-bulking selection. Orthodox seeds in short, medium, and long-term storage facilities are conserved as a seed bank. Major types are household seed banks, community seed banks, national seeds, natural seed banks, and global seed banks. A seed bank is for assuring the availability of crop diversity for research, study, and production. The common works in seed banks are diversity collection, regeneration, characterization, multiplication, and distribution along with online database management.


Conservation; Endangered; Native seed; Red zone; Selection method; Workflow


Joshi, B.K. (2023). Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and National Seed Banks for Sustainable Agriculture (Chapter.13). In Hasrat Arjjumend (ed.), Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, pp.245-260.  Montreal/Vancouver, Canada: The Grassroots Institute. eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6 Doi:

Open Access. Copyright © 2023 the author(s), published by The Grassroots Institute. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial - No Derivatives 4.0 International License. This work was first published as an article in the GJNR journal of the same publisher with Doi:

Edited by Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

About the Author(s)

Dr. Bal Krishna Joshi is a Senior Scientist (Plant Genetics and Breeding) at the National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (National Genebank), Nepal Agricultural Research Council Kathmandu (Nepal). He did PhD degree in Agricultural Science from Japan, and has two Master degrees, one in plant genetics and breeding from Nepal and second on horticulture with minor in statistics from USA. Dr. Joshi is working on agrobiodiversity conservation and utilization since last 25 years through 80 different methods/approaches/ good practices. He has applied/developed many new concepts for the management of agrobiodiversity. Some of the specific working areas are genetic enhancement of landraces, use of biotechnology, geographical information system, climate analog tool, participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, computer aided statistical training, policy formulation, etc. He has published >300 articles and edited 20 books and proceedings. He is serving as an Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council since 2018. Earlier he served as Editor in Chief for other journal as well and editor member for few journals. He has been also involving on teaching Plant breeding, Genetics, Biotechnology and Statistics in different universities. He is a resource person for some topics on an international training on seed resilient system since last few years. He received 12 different awards including National Technology Award, and Science and Technology Youth Award. He is a member of Nepal Plant Breeding and Genetic Society, Nepal Agrobiodiversity Society, Biotechnology Society of Nepal, Society of Agricultural Scientists Nepal, Nepal Biotechnology Society.

About this book

Open Access

In the captivating pages of "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management", readers embark on an insightful journey through the intricate world of mountain ecosystems and the essential strategies for responsible resource management. This book serves as an enlightening guide for understanding the unique dynamics of these awe-inspiring landscapes and the challenges they face in an ever-changing world. Through a harmonious blend of scientific exploration and practical approaches, this research-based literary expedition unveils the delicate balance between human development and the preservation of these remarkable ecosystems.

Spanning 24 chapters, the book first delves into the enchanting beauty and biodiversity of mountain ecosystems. This section not only highlights the intrinsic value of these ecosystems but also sheds light on their vulnerability to climate change and human activities. Moving forward, the book meticulously dissects resource management strategies that hold the key to sustaining the delicate equilibrium of mountain environments, through capturing the topics of Mountain Agrobiodiversity, Mountain Forests, Mountain Watersheds, River Basin Management, Ecotourism, Animal Genetic Diversity, Mountain Identity, Environmental Psychology and Mountain Policies. Thus, whether it is water resources crucial for downstream communities, sustainable tourism that respects local cultures, or responsible land use planning, the book offers a wealth of insights to empower policymakers, environmentalists, and local communities alike.

Overall, the narrative transcends from theory to action as the book presents inspiring case studies of successful resource management initiatives from around the globe. These stories of collaboration, innovation, and resilience demonstrate that a harmonious coexistence between humans and mountain ecosystems is not only attainable but also imperative for a sustainable future. "Mountain Ecosystems & Resources Management" serves as a beacon of knowledge, guiding readers toward a deeper appreciation of these majestic landscapes and inspiring them to become stewards of their preservation. As we stand at a crossroads of environmental consciousness, this book paves the way for informed decisions that will safeguard these natural treasures for generations to come.

About the Editor

Hasrat Arjjumend


  • Mountains
  • Mountain Ecosystems
  • Natural Resources
  • NRM
  • Mountain Agrobiodiversity
  • Mountain Forests
  • Mountain Watershed
  • River Basin Management
  • Ecotourism
  • Mountain Biodiversity
  • Mountain Landscape
  • Climate Change
  • Animal Genetic Diversity
  • Mountain Identity
  • Environmental Psychology
  • Mountain Policies


Arjjumend, H. (ed.) (2023). Mountain Ecosystems and Resources Management, vol. 1, Montreal, Canada: The Grassroots Institute, eISBN: 978-1-7778455-0-6. Doi:

Table of Contents

Preface / Foreword
Chapter 1 Introduction
Hasrat Arjjumend
Chapter 2 Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review
Sining Zhang
Chapter 3 Mountain Biodiversity in Romania
Daniela Antonescu
Chapter 4 Fish Diversity of Hill Streams of South Kamrup, Assam, India
Ellora Choudhury, Saibal Sengupta
Chapter 5 Mountain Forests: Challenges and Management
Hyunshik Moon, Tamirat Solomon
Chapter 6 Dynamics of Grassland Vegetation Composition across different Land-use Types on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau: Implications to Combat Grassland Degradation
Moses Fayiah, ShiKui Dong, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Sanjay Singh, Muthu Rajkumar, Sallay Saccoh, Rebecca Bockarie
Chapter 7 Understanding the Nexus of Climate Change and Migration: A Case of Dhye Peoples from Upper Mustang, Nepal
Pragya Sherchan
Chapter 8 Integrated Management of Land, Water and Bioresources for Sustainable Agriculture in North Eastern Region of India
Chapter 9 Integrated River Basin Management: Lessons Learned from the Nepal Himalaya
Prakash Singh Thapa, Sunita Ranabhat, Kishor Aryal, Bindu Ghimire, Kabi Raj Khatiwada
Chapter 10 Agrobiodiversity Indicators and Measurement using R
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 11 Agrobiodiversity and Natural Resource Management in Traditional Agricultural Systems of Northeast India
Wishfully Mylliemngap
Chapter 12 Ecosystem Services to Support the Diversification of Agricultural Production
Alla Pecheniuk, Valentyna Borkovska, Andrii Pecheniuk, Iryna Mushenyk
Chapter 13 Indigenous Seeds, Seed Selection and Seed Bank for Sustainable Agriculture
Bal Krishna Joshi
Chapter 14 Enhancing Farmers’ Seed Systems through Empowerment of Women: A Case Study from mountain areas of SW China
Yanyan Zhang, Xin Song, Yiching Song, Milin Tian
Chapter 15 Issues of Declining Livestock Breeds: Revisiting Domestic Animal Diversity in Pastoral Systems
Saverio Krätli
Chapter 16 Study on the Diversity of Products Obtained from Sheep in the Current Bioeconomy Context
Lavinia Udrea, Gabriela Teodorescu, Sînziana Venera Morărita, Ivona David
Chapter 17 Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges
Ayman Balla Mustafa, Asim Faraz
Chapter 18 Trends and Patterns of Scientific Publishing during 1990-2020 on Conservation Genetics in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest
Marcos Vinicius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Gustavo Reis de Brito, Marcela Aparecida de Moraes Silvestre
Chapter 19 Mountain Identity and Development Aspirations
Elena Konstantinidou, Konstantinos Moraitis
Chapter 20 Psychological Discourse in Building the Environmental Consciousness in Special Context of Carpathian Mountains
Olena Khrushch, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 21 Collective Ecological Consciousness from the Prism of Psychological Indicators
Olena Khrushch, Oksana Fedyk, Yuliya Karpiuk
Chapter 22 United Nations Mountain Agenda, the Mountain Partnership and Related Regional Mechanisms
Rosalaura Romeo
Chapter 23 Postmodern Transformations of Tourism Development in Mountains
Alla Pecheniuk, Alla Kiziun
Annexure List of Reviewers
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: The Grassroots Institute
  • Copyright Year: 2023
  • Audience: Natural Resources Scientists, Social Scientists, Policy Analysts, etc.
  • Keywords: Mountains; Mountain Ecosystems; Natural Resources; NRM; Mountain Agrobiodiversity; Mountain Forests; Mountain Watershed; River Basin Management; Ecotourism; Mountain Biodiversity; Mountain Landscape; Climate Change; Animal Genetic Diversity; Mountain Identity; Environmental Psychology; Mountain Policies
  • eBook: